Julg B, Liu PT, Wagh K, Fischer WM, Abbink P, Mercado NB, Whitney JB, Nkolola JP, McMahan K1, Tartaglia LJ, Borducchi EN, Khatiwada S, Kamath M, LeSuer JA, Seaman, Schmidt SD, Mascola JR, Burton DR, Korber BT, Barouch DH.
HIV-1 sequence diversity presents a major challenge for the clinical development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for both therapy and prevention. Sequence variation in critical bNAb epitopes has been observed in most HIV-1-infected individuals and can lead to viral escape after bNAb monotherapy in humans. We show that viral sequence diversity can limit both the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of bNAbs in rhesus monkeys. We first demonstrate that monotherapy with the V3 glycan-dependent antibody 10-1074, but not PGT121, results in rapid selection of preexisting viral variants containing N332/S334 escape mutations and loss of therapeutic efficacy in simian-HIV (SHIV)-SF162P3-infected rhesus monkeys. We then show that the V3 glycan-dependent antibody PGT121 alone and the V2 glycan-dependent antibody PGDM1400 alone both fail to protect against a mixed challenge with SHIV-SF162P3 and SHIV-325c. In contrast, the combination of both bNAbs provides 100% protection against this mixed SHIV challenge. These data reveal that single bNAbs efficiently select resistant viruses from a diverse challenge swarm to establish infection, demonstrating the importance of bNAb cocktails for HIV-1 prevention.
Xu L, Pegu A, Rao E, Doria-Rose N, Beninga J, McKee K, Lord DM, Wei RR, Deng G, Louder M, Schmidt SD, Mankoff Z, Wu L, Asokan M, Beil C, Lange C, Leuschner WD, Kruip J, Sendak R, Kwon YD, Zhou T, Chen X, Bailer RT, Wang K, Choe M, Tartaglia LJ, Barouch DH, O’Dell S, Todd JP, Burton DR, Roederer M, Connors M, Koup RA, Kwong PD, Yang ZY, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ.
The development of an effective AIDS vaccine has been challenging because of viral genetic diversity and the difficulty of generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). We engineered trispecific antibodies (Abs) that allow a single molecule to interact with three independent HIV-1 envelope determinants: the CD4 binding site, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), and the V1V2 glycan site. Trispecific Abs exhibited higher potency and breadth than any previously described single bnAb, showed pharmacokinetics similar to those of human bnAbs, and conferred complete immunity against a mixture of simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) in nonhuman primates, in contrast to single bnAbs. Trispecific Abs thus constitute a platform to engage multiple therapeutic targets through a single protein, and they may be applicable for treatment of diverse diseases, including infections, cancer, and autoimmunity.
Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the HIV-1 envelope V2 apex confer protection against a clade C SHIV challenge.
Julg B, Tartaglia LJ, Keele BF, Wagh K, Pegu A, Sok D, Abbink P, Schmidt SD, Wang K, Chen X, Joyce MG, Georgiev IS, Choe M, Kwong PD, Doria-Rose NA, Le K, Louder MK, Bailer RT, Moore PL, Korber B, Seaman MS, Abdool Karim SS, Morris L, Koup RA, Mascola JR, Burton DR, Barouch DH.
Neutralizing antibodies to the V2 apex antigenic region of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer are among the most prevalent cross-reactive antibodies elicited by natural infection. Two recently described V2-specific antibodies, PGDM1400 and CAP256-VRC26.25, have demonstrated exquisite potency and neutralization breadth against HIV-1. However, little data exist on the protective efficacy of V2-specific neutralizing antibodies. We created a novel SHIV-325c viral stock that included a clade C HIV-1 envelope and was susceptible to neutralization by both of these antibodies. Rhesus macaques received a single infusion of either antibody at three different concentrations (2, 0.4, and 0.08 mg/kg) before challenge with SHIV-325c. PGDM1400 was fully protective at the 0.4 mg/kg dose, whereas CAP256-VRC26.25-LS was fully protective even at the 0.08 mg/kg dose, which correlated with its greater in vitro neutralization potency against the challenge virus. Serum antibody concentrations required for protection were <0.75 μg/ml for CAP256-VRC26.25-LS. These data demonstrate unprecedented potency and protective efficacy of V2-specific neutralizing antibodies in nonhuman primates and validate V2 as a potential target for the prevention of HIV-1 infection in passive immunization strategies in humans.
Adenovirus prime, Env protein boost vaccine protects against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants in rhesus monkeys.
Keele BF, Li W, Borducchi EN, Nkolola JP, Abbink P, Chen B, Seaman MS, Barouch DH.
Previous studies have shown that DNA prime, Ad5 boost vaccines protect against neutralization-sensitive but not neutralization-resistant virus variants within the SIVsmE660 swarm. Here we show that Ad prime, Env protein boost vaccines protect against neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants. We perform two studies in rhesus monkeys with Ad35/Ad26 vectors expressing SIVmac239 Gag/Pol/Env with or without an AS01B-adjuvanted SIVmac32H gp140 protein boost. In a repetitive, low-dose challenge study, we observe robust protection against acquisition of infection by both Ad Alone and Ad/Env vaccines. In a single, high-dose challenge study, only the Ad/Env vaccine affords significant protection against acquisition of infection. Analysis of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses from this study demonstrates that the Ad/Env vaccine blocks both neutralization-sensitive and neutralization-resistant SIVsmE660 variants in rhesus monkeys with restrictive TRIM5α alleles. These data demonstrate that the adjuvanted Env protein boost is critical for protecting against high-dose SIVsmE660 challenge and for blocking neutralization-resistant viruses within the SIVsmE660 swarm.
Virological Control by the CD4-Binding Site Antibody N6 in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys.
Julg B, Pegu A, Abbink P, Liu J, Brinkman A, Molloy K, Mojta S, Chandrashekar A, Callow K, Wang K, Chen X, Schmidt SD, Huang J, Koup RA, Seaman MS, Keele BF, Mascola JR, Connors M, Barouch DH.
Passive immunotherapy against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with maximum breadth and potency to ensure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross-clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-SF162P3-infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7, while the combination of both antibodies suppressed all animals. The combination of both antibodies had no additive antiviral effect compared to a single dose of PGT121, potentially reflecting the nearly 10-fold-higher potency of PGT121 against this SHIV. Viral rebound occurred in the majority of suppressed animals and was linked to declining plasma bnAb levels over time. In addition to the effect on plasma viremia, bnAb administration resulted in significantly reduced proviral DNA levels in PBMCs after 2 weeks and in lymph nodes after 10 weeks. Autologous neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and CD8+ T-cell responses were not significantly enhanced in the bnAb-treated animals compared to control animals, arguing against their contribution to the viral effects observed. These results confirm the robust antiviral activity of N6-LS in vivo, supporting the further clinical development of this antibody.IMPORTANCE Monocloncal antibodies (MAbs) are being considered for passive immunotherapy of HIV-1 infection. A critical requirement for such strategies is the identification of MAbs that recognize the diversity of variants within circulating but also reservoir viruses, and MAb combinations might be needed to achieve this goal. This study evaluates the novel bnAb N6-LS alone or in combination with the bnAb PGT121, in rhesus macaques that were chronically infected with SHIV. The results demonstrate that N6-LS potently suppressed plasma viral loads in the majority of animals but that the combination with PGT121 was not superior to PGT121 alone in delaying time to viral rebound or reducing peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) or lymph node proviral DNA levels. The occurrence of viral escape variants in an N6-LS-monotreated animal, however, argues for the need to maximize breadth and antiviral efficacy by combining bnAbs for therapeutic indications.
Nature. 2016 Dec 8;540(7632):284-287. doi: 10.1038/nature20583. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
Borducchi EN, Cabral C, Stephenson KE, Liu J, Abbink P, Ng’ang’a D, Nkolola JP, Brinkman AL, Peter L, Lee BC, Jimenez J, Jetton D, Mondesir J, Mojta S, Chandrashekar A, Molloy K, Alter G, Gerold JM, Hill AL, Lewis MG, Pau MG, Schuitemaker H, Hesselgesser J, Geleziunas R, Kim JH, Robb ML, Michael NL, Barouch DH.
The development of immunologic interventions that can target the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals is a major goal of HIV-1 research. However, little evidence exists that the viral reservoir can be sufficiently targeted to improve virologic control following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. Here we show that therapeutic vaccination with Ad26/MVA (recombinant adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) prime, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost) and stimulation of TLR7 (Toll-like receptor 7) improves virologic control and delays viral rebound following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in SIV-infected rhesus monkeys that began antiretroviral therapy during acute infection. Therapeutic vaccination with Ad26/MVA resulted in a marked increase in the magnitude and breadth of SIV-specific cellular immune responses in virologically suppressed, SIV-infected monkeys. TLR7 agonist administration led to innate immune stimulation and cellular immune activation. The combination of Ad26/MVA vaccination and TLR7 stimulation resulted in decreased levels of viral DNA in lymph nodes and peripheral blood, and improved virologic control and delayed viral rebound following discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. The breadth of cellular immune responses correlated inversely with set point viral loads and correlated directly with time to viral rebound. These data demonstrate the potential of therapeutic vaccination combined with innate immune stimulation as a strategy aimed at a functional cure for HIV-1 infection.
Science. 2016 Sep 2;353(6303):1045-1049. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
Liu J1, Ghneim K2, Sok D3, Bosche WJ4, Li Y4, Chipriano E4, Berkemeier B4, Oswald K4, Borducchi E1, Cabral C1, Peter L1, Brinkman A1, Shetty M1, Jimenez J1, Mondesir J1, Lee B1, Giglio P1, Chandrashekar A1, Abbink P1, Colantonio A5, Gittens C6, Baker C6, Wagner W6, Lewis MG6, Li W7, Sekaly RP2, Lifson JD4, Burton DR8, Barouch DH9.
HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can protect rhesus monkeys against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, the site of antibody interception of virus and the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection remain unclear. We administered a fully protective dose of the bNAb PGT121 to rhesus monkeys and challenged them intravaginally with SHIV-SF162P3. In PGT121-treated animals, we detected low levels of viral RNA and viral DNA in distal tissues for seven days following challenge. Viral RNA-positive tissues showed transcriptomic changes indicative of innate immune activation, and cells from these tissues initiated infection after adoptive transfer into naïve hosts. These data demonstrate that bNAb-mediated protection against a mucosal virus challenge can involve clearance of infectious virus in distal tissues.
Curr Opin Immunol. 2016 Aug;41:39-46. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2016.05.011. Epub 2016 Jun 3.
Stephenson KE1, D’Couto HT2, Barouch DH3.
With 2 million people newly infected with HIV-1 in 2014, an effective HIV-1 vaccine remains a major public health priority. HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials in humans, complemented by active and passive immunization studies in non-human primates, have identified several key vaccine-induced immunological responses that may correlate with protection against HIV-1 infection. Potential correlates of protection in these studies include V2-specific, polyfunctional, and broadly neutralizing antibody responses, as well as effector memory T cell responses. Here we review how these correlates of protection are guiding current approaches to HIV-1 vaccine development. These approaches include improvements on the ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX B/E vaccine regimen used in the RV144 clinical trial in Thailand, adenovirus serotype 26 vectors with gp140 boosting, intravenous infusions of bNAbs, and replicating viral vectors.
Measuring replication competent HIV-1: advances and challenges in defining the latent reservoir.
Retrovirology. 2018 Feb 13;15(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12977-018-0404-7.
Wang Z1, Simonetti FR2, Siliciano RF3,4, Laird GM2.
Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. Measuring persistent HIV-1 is challenging, as it consists of a mosaic population of defective and intact proviruses that can shift from a state of latency to active HIV-1 transcription. Due to this complexity, most of the current assays detect multiple categories of persistent HIV-1, leading to an overestimate of the true size of the latent reservoir. Here, we review the development of the viral outgrowth assay, the gold-standard quantification of replication-competent proviruses, and discuss the insights provided by full-length HIV-1 genome sequencing methods, which allowed us to unravel the composition of the proviral landscape. In this review, we provide a dissection of what defines HIV-1 persistence and we examine the unmet needs to measure the efficacy of interventions aimed at eliminating the HIV-1 reservoir.
J Virol. 2018 Mar 14;92(7). pii: e01925-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01925-17. Print 2018 Apr 1.
Badamchi-Zadeh A1, Tartaglia LJ1, Abbink P1, Bricault CA1, Liu PT1, Boyd M1, Kirilova M1, Mercado NB1, Nanayakkara OS1, Vrbanac VD2, Tager AM2, Larocca RA1, Seaman MS1, Barouch DH3,4.
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies. However, administration of purified bNAbs poses challenges in resource-poor settings, where the HIV-1 disease burden is greatest. In vivo vector-based production of bNAbs represents an alternative strategy. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121 in wild-type and immunocompromised C57BL/6 mice as well as in HIV-1-infected bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice. Ad5.PGT121 and AAV1.PGT121 produced functional antibody in vivo Ad5.PGT121 produced PGT121 rapidly within 6 h, whereas AAV1.PGT121 produced detectable PGT121 in serum by 72 h. Serum PGT121 levels were rapidly reduced by the generation of anti-PGT121 antibodies in immunocompetent mice but were durably maintained in immunocompromised mice. In HIV-1-infected BLT humanized mice, Ad5.PGT121 resulted in a greater reduction of viral loads than did AAV1.PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 also led to more-sustained virologic control than purified PGT121 IgG. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. Further evaluation of vector delivery of HIV-1 bNAbs is warranted, although approaches to prevent the generation of antiantibody responses may also be required.IMPORTANCE Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are being explored for HIV-1 prevention and cure strategies, but delivery of purified antibodies may prove challenging. We investigated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) vectors to deliver the HIV-1-specific bNAb PGT121. Ad5.PGT121 afforded more rapid, robust, and durable antiviral efficacy than AAV1.PGT121 and purified PGT121 IgG in HIV-1-infected humanized mice.
Immunity. 2017 Oct 17;47(4):766-775.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.09.014.
Shan L1, Deng K2, Gao H3, Xing S4, Capoferri AA4, Durand CM4, Rabi SA4, Laird GM4, Kim M4, Hosmane NN4, Yang HC5, Zhang H6, Margolick JB6, Li L7, Cai W7, Ke R8, Flavell RA9, Siliciano JD4, Siliciano RF10.
The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. Studies of HIV-1 latency have focused on regulation of viral gene expression in cells in which latent infection is established. However, it remains unclear how infection initially becomes latent. Here we described a unique set of properties of CD4+ T cells undergoing effector-to-memory transition including temporary upregulation of CCR5 expression and rapid downregulation of cellular gene transcription. These cells allowed completion of steps in the HIV-1 lifecycle through integration but suppressed HIV-1 gene transcription, thus allowing the establishment of latency. CD4+ T cells in this stage were substantially more permissive for HIV-1 latent infection than other CD4+ T cells. Establishment of latent HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T could be inhibited by viral-specific CD8+ T cells, a result with implications for elimination of latent HIV-1 infection by T cell-based vaccines.